We’ve been reviewing the four themes outlined in the bipartisan report, Defense Acquisition Reform: Where Do We Go From Here? A Compendium of Views by Leading Experts, including incentivization of the acquisition workforce, and attracting and training a qualified acquisition workforce.
Theme #3: Realism in program requirements and budgets
Requirements have always been the key to avoiding extra costs and delays. But getting good requirements up front has never been easy. And with limited budgets and limited money to spend, and certainly staffing that’s been reduced over time, it’s been a constant problem that can only get worse.
The fact that this was included as one of the key factors in acquisition reform points out the issue, but without making it easy to figure out the solution.
Ultimately, we need to balance getting better, more precise requirements against not specifying a solution that thereby constrains industry ingenuity and innovation on the other end.
We want the government to give their industry partners the opportunity to be innovative, but to also be able to specify a solution that is at least close to what the government thinks is going to be workable, and that will fit within their budgetary restraints.
Here is an example of this issue in action: The government has something they want to do, e.g., build a tank. You have a certain amount of functional activity you know the tank is supposed to do, i.e., it has to carry ammunition and troops. But then there are other questions to answer:
How fast does it need to go? How long does it need to drive for in order to get from where it starts to the battlefield, and how much does it have to do after it arrives? How many rounds of ammunition should it carry? What does its crew need to do? Can it go on roads? Does it need to have a certain center of gravity to not destroy the road? What about electronic counter-measures and safety for the crew, and armor sizing?
So you see that while conceptually what I wanted was a tank, now I’ve identified many more details. Yet I don’t necessarily want to tell the people bidding how to do everything, because I’d like some innovation and improvement to come in from their bid.
The more requirements I specify, the more I’m droning down into one constrained solution, because I’ve told people so much of what I want. The less I specify requirements, the more likely they are to have a range of solutions, but thereby a range of costs and a range of capabilities that they’re delivering against that more loose set of requirements. I might end up in a tank with a gun that shoots left, which might not be so good.
More specific requirements are also more costly to generate, because they need to be developed in precision. There’s a joke in the acquisition community about $1,000 wrenches. A wrench may only cost $12.99 at your local hardware store, but if you’ve over-specified in your requirements, the only way to build it to those specs will be with costly and foolish materials. Meanwhile, the $12.99 wrench would have been just fine. Maybe not perfect, but okay.
We have to have requirements at some level, and we have to understand that the more specific the requirements, the less diverse solutions we’re going to get.
The second theme was about attracting and training a qualified acquisition workforce. In my summary post, I equated this to what we’ve already been discussing about the interplay between education, certification and experience.
This being a time of austerity and budget crunches, there is a tendency for contracting officers and their staff to be people who’ve risen through the ranks and learned on the job – versus having the related degrees or certifications.
Like anywhere else, when you start comparing credentials and/or education to on-the-job experience, there are going to be both equivalencies and trade-offs. However, the fact of the matter is that when you’re talking about complex procurement and acquisitions, the price of inexperience and lack of specific education is delays.
So it isn’t that you fail in an acquisition, it’s that the acquisition gets delayed. How many times have all of us, in industry and on the other side in government, had an acquisition that should have made it from draft to final in three months, but it takes six months? Or worse, the requirements are redone because there have been so many changes. These delays create a lot of costs, especially on the industry side.
Attracting a more educated, more credentialed, more experienced acquisition workforce comes with a different expense. There will be more churning and turnover as people search for more prestigious opportunities, leaving some other organization bereft of their senior staff. Then there is the financial cost of hiring in subject matter experts from industry who do have all the credentials.
Yet if you’re going to “grow your own” and promote from your own ranks, we could all be putting up with more delays, problems and mistakes along the way.
Like many of the recommendations in this report, all of these options come down to be, in essence, a double-edged sword. It’s more desirable to have a more educated, credentialed and experience acquisitions workforce, but the question is where is it coming from?
One thing you need is a larger pool of junior people. You do not want to be promoting simply in terms of longevity, but people who will be the most successful contracting officers and senior contracting officials. You can find them from industry or some other agency, but then someone somewhere has to rebuild their acquisition workforce.
I wish I had the solution for you, but like with all of these issues, there is no simple answer.
This is a guest post by Richard Lewis, Financial Engineering Counselors, Ltd.
Securing the financing you need to grow your small business can be a challenge. Over the past decade, banks have increased lending to big business by 36%, but over the same period, bank lending to small businesses has declined by almost 15%, and loans of less than $100,000 have dropped precipitously by more than 33%.
Fortunately, small businesses can find alternative financing sources, including a Small Business Administration (SBA) loan. There are several different types of SBA loans, including:
Be sure to check which type of loan is right for your needs before beginning the application process.
SBA loans have been around for more than 60 years. These loans, which were established to promote small business growth, typically have lower interest rates and monthly loan payments.
Unfortunately, the process of applying for an SBA loan can be complicated and it can take a long time to complete the process. Once you do, there can also be an extended period of time before you actually obtain your funding. You can speed up the approval process by observing some simple guidelines. Here are five you need to be aware of:
- Your credit rating counts: Good credit is important for any loan, and that includes SBA loans. Follow good credit rules, like being sure to pay your bills before the deadlines. Obviously, you’ll want to avoid credit-killing actions like foreclosures and bankruptcies.
- Keep your financial documents up to date and organized: This includes all of your financial and accounting documents, as well as your tax records. You might consider using some good accounting software designed for small business if you don’t already to bring greater organization to your records. Having your financial records organized and accessible will move the process along more quickly.
- Spell out the purpose of the loan as clearly as possible: Lenders want to know that you’re a good loan risk, and that means they’ll be interested in what you plan to do with the money. Take the time to outline this in the clearest possible fashion, whether your loan is to add vehicles to your sales fleet or expand the size of your brick and mortar store.
- Explain how you’ll pay back the loan: You’ll need to demonstrate that you have good cash flow. You can do this through your most recent tax records. Lenders will also want to know how much other debt you have. If the loan is for a start-up business, you should pull together a smart financial plan and include credible projections which demonstrate your ability to make your monthly payments.
- Be prepared to describe your history: Lenders will want to know about your finances, but they’ll also be interested in whether you personally are a good risk. That has to do with your relevant experience, how much time you’ve been in business and the degree of professional success you’ve had.
Applying for any loan, whether traditional or through alternative financing, can be confusing. The good news is that there are experienced professionals who can walk you through the process, answer your questions and maximize your chances of success through long-standing partnerships with banks, finance companies and professional service firms.
This post originally appeared on the Financial Engineering Counselors website at http://www.fecltd.net/blog/?p=102 and was reprinted with permission.
Richard Lewis is a government contractor financing consultant. You can contact him at 703-992-8988.
A group of 31 procurement experts recently shared their thoughts about defense acquisition reform, in a report published at the Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs website.
They identified four emerging themes abut acquisition, issues which I believe expand across the board to other federal agencies.
The first theme was about the incentivization of the acquisition workforce. Basically, if we want a better acquisition process, we need to measure better things. A true statement if there ever was one.
The core concept behind this is something that goes back to the dawn of observation, and that is what you observe, what you measure, is what’s going to be paid attention to. While that seems simplistic, failure to analyze the effect of that phenomenon is what gets us into terrible trouble.
Here is a simple example of how this works: Say I have a problem with a piece of equipment, like my TV, computer or phone. I call up the help desk and tell the operator about the problem.
One of the metrics used to evaluate that operator is how long they’re on the phone with me. Three minutes, let’s say, is the standard. Any calls that are three minutes or less, great. But if my problem is more complicated to explain or solve, now I begin to screw up the metrics.
People want to help their customers, but they also want to do what it takes to show they’re doing a good job. In this case, there is a conflict between those two things. That operator is going to want to get me off the phone as close to three minutes as possible. But then I’m not going to be a happy customer.
I believe so strongly in the power of this measurement concept that I created a unique methodology for TAPE called Behavior-Based Performance Metrics Methodology (BBPMM)®. With BBPMM®, we empower our help desk operators to refer more complicated calls to technical experts. You reduce the average time involved because the expert is better equipped to deal with the problem more quickly, and the caller gets specialized help for their problem – both lead to satisfied customers.
The issue in acquisitions is that there is nothing that incentivizes an acquisition expert (contracting officer) to shut down a problem acquisition. There is no measurement for that. In fact, the only measurement is on completion of the acquisition – getting to a final signed contract.
With a complicated procurement that requires a lot of information, sometimes you need to pull back and start all over again, but then that screws up the metrics. It’s this kind of problem people are facing in defense and across the board in the procurement sector.
Here is a direct example of how this works in practice: There’s a procurement we’ve been working on for 18 months, and we had expected the RFP would come out earlier in 2014. It did not. But it’s entered into the formal process by which a draft of the final RFP will be issued.
Last week we found out that the review would happen a year later than we had been estimating. It’s obvious they’re overestimating to make sure the RFP comes in on time, so they don’t screw up their metrics. They know that more bids could come along they hadn’t accounted for, or any number of other factors that could delay the process by six months.
Understanding how the acquisition workforce responds to the metrics by which they’re measured is an issue that has to be looked at much more closely than it has up until now.
U.S. Senators John McCain (R-AZ) and Carl Levin (D-MI), Ranking Member and Chairman of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI) recently released a bipartisan report, Defense Acquisition Reform: Where Do We Go From Here? A Compendium of Views by Leading Experts. You can download the report from the Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs website.
In the opening of the document, they summarize the sentiments of the experts – 31 current and former officials in the procurement world – and identify four themes. I believe these four themes have applicability for acquisition across the federal government.
#1 – Incentivization of the acquisition workforce
This is not about the traditional incentives that we use like giving people more money. Yes, there are opportunities for bonuses for federal employees, but this is a more subtle problem that goes back to a key principle we’ve talked about before, which is that people pay attention to the metrics by which they’re measured.
If we want a better acquisition process, we need to measure better things.
#2 Attracting and training a qualified acquisition workforce
We talked recently about the interplay between education, certification and experience, and this is the same problem. At the government they’re concerned about experience, because it translates directly into better acquisition actions and service.
On the other hand, there are places you can get education and certification in acquisition activity, including one sponsored by the Department of Defense, along with other agency programs such as the VA Acquisition Academy.
Fundamentally the biggest problem is do you want certifications, experience, and/or (and what is the trade-off) education?
In the case of an acquisition workforce, you have to be aware that you’re not likely to get, for example, an expert in jet airplanes, let alone war planes, to become your contracting officer, even though you’re going to wind up spending literally billions of dollars to create those airplanes.
#3 Realism in program requirements and budgets
I completely agree that this is a big problem across the board. All too often, the requirements are inadequately specified, which means that as soon as you actually start a project, you’re kept busy figuring out what you really need, as compared to what the RFP said you’d need. And every time you get into that kind of mode, costs expand exponentially.
#4 – The role of the service chiefs in the acquisition process
This is more of an organizational issue, pointing out that better acquisition procedure is not just a procurement problem; it is an operational problem and a procurement problem. That means the joint chiefs of staff have to be involved in the procurement process, and with improving the procurement process.
We’ll take a deeper look at some of these themes in upcoming blog posts. Stay tuned!
A little while ago I met Irit Oz and Ron Hirshfeld, two amazing folks who were in the US to bring their concept of employee engagement and the information revolution to fruition.
At my company, we are on the cusp between small, and thinking about being “not small” pretty soon now (this “launch point” is one of my passions in the small business community). We are working with a strategic planner to write the story of our business, as a pathway to bringing out our true goals as entrepreneurs and as a business.
Preserving employee and company culture is one of the hardest things about this stage of growth, which is why our strategic planner introduced us to Irit and Ron, and why I invited them to present their concepts here for your reading and reaction.
Did Our World Turn Upside Down?
A guest post by Irit Oz and Ron Hirshfeld.
Do you sometimes feel that you are holding your business intact with your bare hands? Do you set goals that seem reasonable to you and find yourself pushing your target dates or compromising on scope continuously? Do you feel sometimes that getting things done, the way you want them, is almost an impossible task? Did you ever get to a point that you’ve asked yourself, “Did our world turned upside down?”
If you have, you are not very far off. Our world did turn upside down is some way. Sounds crazy? Let’s look at the facts.
It is common knowledge that in the last 10 years we went through a revolution which most experts call “The Information Revolution.” Did you ever stop and think, how did that revolution impacted me and my business?
Revolution is a very strong word, and it is used to describe extremely impactful events. If we look at the revolutions that we had in the last few hundred years, we can understand why.
Each revolution has profoundly changed our way of living. The agriculture revolution has enabled 90% of human kind that used to work in agriculture to change profession, while the industrial revolution brought us comfort that we didn’t know before and triggered more than 50% of the population in our world to move from rural to urban areas.
For most people over 30, we probably don’t need to elaborate too much regarding the technological revolution. If we just take five minutes to think how we grew up without internet, cellphone, GPS, automatic windows, microwave, etc., we would finish these five minutes extremely grateful.
What was the impact of the revolution that we went through over the last 10 years? The Information Revolution?
One thing that most people are aware of, is that it brought us to a state where almost every knowledge that we want, we can have within seconds in the palm of our hand.
It doesn’t matter if you are a cook who is looking for a good recipe, a traveler who is searching for cheap flights, a software engineer who is looking for a particular way to implement an application, a lawyer who is searching for a specific legal case, or, God forbid, a terrorist who is looking to prepare a bomb. You can find everything you need very quickly using your computer, your tablet, or your cell phone.
That was not the situation 10 years ago. Ten years ago the teachers in school were the source of information, the managers in the organizations were the ones to teach you how to do your job, and the leaders in your country were the ones letting you know what the hell was going on.
Today, on the other hand, teenagers can learn what ever they are interested in from the comfort of their home, any employee can learn how to do their job from experts around the world, and any one of us can, very easily, check the facts that politicians are telling us.
If you look at the situations in organizations today, the information is no longer flowing from top-down. The people who are dealing with customers, production, inventory, programing, etc. are the ones holding the important knowledge.
If knowledge used to flow almost exclusively from top-down, it is now coming mostly bottom-up. This seems very trivial when we look at the facts, yet let’s take a moment to absorb this critical and astonishing concept. If the flow of information has reversed, what does it mean about the role of management? Can we keep doing the same things and succeed? As the great Albert Einstein said: “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.”
If we are no longer the source of information for our employees, how can we get them engaged? If they have the knowledge, do we know how to retrieve it from them in order to make wise and knowledgeable decisions? Did we adjust the way we conduct business to support the new reality?
If we hadn’t, wouldn’t that be a disaster? Wouldn’t that be something very noticeable, something that would possibly threaten our survival, something that would make us feel as if our world has turned upside down?
Irit Oz & Ron Hirshfeld
Employee Engagement Experts
OH (Irit Oz and Ron Hirshfeld) are two unique individuals with 50 years of combined experience and hundreds of success stories. They have ONE purpose: To help transform your organizational culture to support your business strategy and assure that your desires become your REALITY. Learn more at http://ozandhirshfeld.com/.
Whether at a brick-and-mortar location or an off-site venue, open house events are used throughout various industries to showcase a business’s products and services to current and potential customers. This is especially true when competing for a complex government contract, which often requires the formation of a team in order to maximize capabilities, past performance, and resources.
In this situation, quickly branding the team is critical. An open house allows you to showcase your team’s potential to the customer, the competition, and future employees. Time is always the critical variable – it’s short and just gets shorter! Digital communication is the proven trend but sometimes it’s not enough. Sometimes you need to get close and personal.
In planning an open house, you’ll want to consider the following questions:
- How will you promote your open house (e.g., social media, mailed invitations, phone calls)?
- Why would someone want to come to your open house (what’s in it for them)?
- Where is the best venue for your open house (proximity to desired audience, parking, catering options, room size)?
- What will you include in your program (e.g., formal speeches, ribbon cutting ceremony, demonstrations, educational presentations)?
- What is the best time of day for your event (lunch crowd, after work crowd, or both)?
- What refreshments will you serve?
- How will you follow up with the people who attend your open house (e.g., registration table to capture contact information)?
For Team Strong Point Research | Division of TAPE (Team SPR/TAPE), our upcoming open house event provides an excellent opportunity to introduce our team: AMTIS, Inc.; ASI Government; CGI Federal; Project XYZ; and SIGMATECH, Inc. to the Orlando, FL community.
Our “Results Driven” team is engaged in a full spectrum of professional, managerial and technical services with specialized expertise and capabilities in modeling, simulation, and training. As a team, we offer the government the lowest risk solution with the highest level of commitment.
Team SPR/TAPE cordially invites you to attend our open house to learn more our team and upcoming opportunities. Enjoy refreshments while networking with our company representatives as well as the other attendees. Come and explore our company’s values and cultures. We look forward to meeting you and establishing a continuous connection!
Team Strong Point Research | Division of TAPE (Team SPR/TAPE) Open House
When: Thursday, November 6, 11:00-18:00
Where: Radisson Orlando – UCF, 1724 Alafaya Trail, Orlando, FL 32826
More information: 407-545-3366 or Team.SPR-TAPE@tape-llc.com
When contractors are responding to a federal RFP (Request for Proposal), there will be specific requirements for the staff who will be involved in the contract. These may be a level of education, e.g., college degree or post-graduate degree; certification, e.g., Microsoft certification for certain kinds of networking equipment; or experience with similar tasks in a similar environment.
A person can have no education and no certification, but be experienced enough to do a good job. Increasingly, however, RFPs require education and certification. This affects the federal contractor in two ways:
First, this situation will tend to favor the incumbent who already has people doing the job. Second, it tends to be more costly because you’ve had to invest in both education and certification for your people, rather than just time on the job getting experience. Someone with more education will also demand a higher salary.
Most companies in the industry do provide some kind of educational reimbursement, and a cost-offset for taking one of these certification tests. In order to be reimbursed, TAPE and most other companies require people to pass the certification or to get a particular level of grade with their educational degree. There is no such thing as a free lunch.
Sometimes RFPs allow for a trade-off between education and experience. For example, if a college degree is required, an associate’s degree would be acceptable if coupled with two or four years of experience. For someone with six or eight years of experience, the entire educational requirement might be waived.
(Note that it’s far more rare for there to be a trade-off for certification. Presumably because it should be easy – though costly – for someone with experience to pass a certification test.)
Personally, if I were looking for the safest path, I’d want someone who was certified and had experience. The certification tells me an independent authority has tested them on the knowledge base required for the job, and the experience tells me they can handle situations that no one can predict.
I wish I could say I have some vast solution for this problem, but I don’t. There is an offset – a clear trade off between education, certification and experience. I know we’ll continue to wrestle with this topic with RFPs and otherwise.
One thing you may want to point out to a contracting officer is that if there are no trade-offs for experience, and if the certification and educational requirements are very specific, it can have potential anti-competitive effects.
Is it fair, for example, for an agency to require only agency-specific air traffic management certification and education? Wouldn’t FAA certification be sufficient, and possibly identical?
Between now and December, there is going to be a lot of vacant time before federal agencies get their budgets settled and begin to look at contract actions again. Now is the time to be planting seeds and be understanding what’s coming down the pipe.
Here are two key things you want to know about your government customers:
What keeps them up at night?
Remember the last time you engaged your customers in a conversation that wasn’t about the work in your current contract? It could be about baseball (just please don’t ask me about my Nationals), football, a TV show, or a photo on their desk. The point is to open up a dialogue so you can build a relationship.
You want to boost your rapport to the point where you can find out what they’re most worried about. What are their concerns? What keeps them up at night?
If they’re standoffish or don’t really want to talk, just come back to it later, or catch them when they’re sitting with a fresh cup of coffee. Emphasize the reason you’re asking, which is to make sure you’re doing everything you can to help.
Also point out that if you know what’s on their plate now and in the future, you can help with the advanced planning for anything you should be thinking about together.
Whatever your customer is worried about is an opportunity for you to do something to help them – either a new piece of work, or to improve the work you’re already doing. Either scenario will cement your relationship and increase your value to them.
How are they evaluated?
What is the top metric on your customer’s job description performance requirement list, i.e., what’s the number one thing that their boss is evaluating them on?
Do you know that? How can you find out? Obviously, that’s an important issue to that person, but it’s also crucial for you as a federal contractor.
Zig Ziglar said that you can have everything in life you want if you will just help enough other people get what they want. When you know how your customer is being evaluated, you can make them successful. The more successful you can make them, the more successful you will be.
The federal fiscal year closed on September 30th, a time when many federal contractors were out hunting for business (or waiting by the side of the road like a vulture). As Eileen Kent explained in her guest post, it’s likely you were doing a little of both. However, whether you were wonderfully successful with your year-end tactics or not, the issue now is what do you do next?
Here’s an example of how to capitalize on a success. On September 30th, at about two o’clock in the afternoon, someone from a federal agency called a member of our senior leadership team to say, “I’ve got a little money I need to put in your task order, how can I do that?” By 9:30 p.m. I was signing the contract papers.
While this certainly proves that when they want to, the government can move pretty fast, what it shows even more is that relationship building works in federal contracting. Yes, we had all the right things in place to make this happen – there was a vehicle, we had a task order, we’re going to fill the jobs, we’ll start the work.
That is the task execution part. That is essentially what the government is paying us for. But I guarantee we weren’t the only company this agency could have approached. The difference is that we had done our homework up to this point.
We did good work for our client, we kept in touch, and we consistently built our relationship. We didn’t know they had this extra money, in fact, no one we knew was involved, but our customer must have spoken highly enough of us to their colleagues that at the 11th hour they came to us and – sight unseen – gave us the work.
When the contracting officer sent over the fully-executed and counter-signed contract, he copied several people in the agency to say it was done. Some of them actually wrote back – using Reply All – to thank the contracting officer.
We might have stopped there, satisfied with the new order, but that’s not how relationship building works. So here’s what I did next: I replied directly to each one of them with the simple message, “Thank you for your confidence in our company.”
In a month or two, we’ll reach out to them again and continue building these new relationships.
That is what this blog is really about. These simple things. Task execution. Responsiveness. Acknowledging other people. It’s about showing somebody that you’re willing to go a few extra steps. That you value their personal contribution to your activity.
At the end of the day, our customers noticed our commitment to our relationship, leading them to recommend us as someone their colleagues could trust to hand over this bunch of money they had to spend before year end.
“Yeah, these guys will do the job for you.”
Truth be told, that’s the only advertisement that counts. The one that comes from your customers.