Small Business Updates in NDAA 2020

magnifying glass in front of typed document
© Violin – depositphotos.com

Note from Bill: The following document was sent to us on behalf of the Small Business Administration by Donna Ragucci of the Federal OSDBU Council.

The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2020 authorizes FY2020 appropriations and sets forth policies regarding the military activities of the Department of Defense (DOD), military construction, and the national security programs of the Department of Energy (DOE).

Below is a list of small business-related FY 2020 updates/changes to the NDAA. We’ll highlight each one here, and then delve into more detail in future posts:

SEC. 870. REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO CREDIT FOR CERTAIN SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN SUBCONTRACTORS.

Highlight: If the subcontracting goals pertain to more than one contract with one or more Federal agencies, or to one contract with more than one Federal agency, the prime contractor may only receive credit for first tier SB subcontractors.

Note from Bill: Interesting nuance here. So multi-award contracts or ANY contract that spans multiple agencies, only the first tier subs apply for SB credit. This mostly applies to large businesses, but can also affect “similarly situated entity” use in multiple award GWACS.

SEC. 871. INCLUSION OF BEST IN CLASS DESIGNATIONS IN ANNUAL REPORT ON SMALL BUSINESS GOALS.  (House bill)

Highlight: In addition to the requirements listed in this section for each best in class designation, the Administrator shall include new requirements in the in Best In Class Small Business Reporting.

Note from Bill: The Best in Class designation is rapidly taking hold, and many agencies are opting out of having their own vehicles and using the BIC. This change allows for more reporting of BIC vehicles and defines legislatively, the requirements.

SEC. 873. ACCELERATED PAYMENTS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS WITH CERTAIN SMALL BUSINESS CONCERNS UNDER THE PROMPT PAYMENT ACT.

Highlight: To the fullest extent permitted by law, the head of an agency will establish an accelerated payment date (with a goal of 15 days after a proper invoice for the amount due is received) if a specific payment date is not established by contract.

Note from Bill: Good for all us smalls, because the fact is, the sooner we get the funds, the better.

SEC. 874. POSTAWARD EXPLANATIONS FOR UNSUCCESSFUL OFFERORS FOR CERTAIN CONTRACTS.

Highlight: Upon receipt of a written request from an unsuccessful offeror for a task order or delivery order in an amount greater than the SAT and less than or equal to $5,500,000 issued under an IDIQ contract; the CO must provide a brief explanation as to why such offeror was unsuccessful.

Note from Bill: So, interesting, this used to be $10M, so the size threshold has gone down (good for us in seeking info), but they mention “brief explanation,” which is frustrating. Brief is NEVER good.

SEC. 875. SMALL BUSINESS CONTRACTING CREDIT FOR SUBCONTRACTORS THAT ARE PUERTO RICO BUSINESSES OR COVERED TERRITORY BUSINESSES.

Highlight: Businesses receive contracting credit for subcontractors that are Puerto Rico Businesses and covered territory businesses. Covered territory businesses are located in the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and The Northern Mariana Islands.

Note from Bill: A simple change that allows Puerto Rican and territorial companies to be included in US designations for SB credits.

SEC. 876. TECHNICAL AMENDMENT REGARDING TREATMENT OF CERTAIN SURVIVING SPOUSES UNDER THE DEFINITION OF SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN OWNED AND CONTROLLED BY SERVICE-DISABLED VETERANS.

Highlight: In section 3(q)(2) of the Small Business Act is amended (bb) in the case of a surviving spouse of a veteran with a service-connected disability rated as less than 100 percent disabling who does not die as a result of a service-connected disability, is 3 years after the date of the death of the veteran.

Note from Bill: This is useful, because it does mean that for a business designated as SDVOSB when the veteran passes, the surviving spouse has three years to “wind things up.” Definitely a good idea.

SEC. 880. ASSISTANCE FOR SMALL BUSINESS CONCERNS PARTICIPATING IN THE SBIR AND STTR PROGRAMS.

Highlight: The PCR (procurement center representative) is to consult with the appropriate personnel from the relevant Federal agency to assist small business concerns in participating in the SBIR or STTR program (with commercializing research developed under such a program) before a small business is awarded a contract from a Federal agency.

Note from Bill: This affects small businesses doing R&D, and is useful to give the SB staff a say in the process to ensure small businesses are utilized on SBIR and STTR  awards.


Restricting LPTA in Federal Contracting

© olly18 – depositphotos.com

In the fall of 2019, the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) released a report about agencies’ use of the lowest price technically acceptable (LPTA) process in federal contracting.

As background, in 2017 section 813 of the NDAA started to create some limitations on using LPTA and when it would be appropriate. Then section 880 of the NDAA FY 2019 required that those changes be applied to civil agencies as well.

As part of that, Congress required the GAO, which acts sort of like Congress’s review agency, to develop some reports on various aspects of the LPTA world – they were looking for large dollar value issues and so forth.

There are eight criteria established for the use of LPTA:

  1. The agency can clearly describe the minimum requirements in terms of performance objectives, measures, and standards that will be used to determine acceptability of offers.
  2. The agency would realize no, or little, value from a proposal exceeding the solicitation’s minimum technical requirements.
  3. The proposed technical approaches can be evaluated with little or no subjectivity as to the desirability of one versus the other.
  4. There is a high degree of certainty that a review of technical proposals other than that of the lowest-price offeror would not identify factors that could provide other benefits to the government.
  5. The contracting officer has included a justification for the use of the LPTA process in the contract file.
  6. The lowest price reflects full life cycle costs, including for operations and support.
  7. DOD would realize little or no additional innovation or future technological advantage by using a different methodology.
  8. For the acquisition of goods, the goods being purchased are predominantly expendable in nature, nontechnical, or have a short life expectancy or shelf life.

The important thing about this, from our perspective, is that Congress is making a determination and imposing requirements on DoD and now on the civil agencies that LPTA has a limited space.

Specifically, there has to be a determination that the agency does not need technical trade-offs. If the agency has technical trade-offs then they can’t use LTPA. Furthermore, if there are specific trade-offs between cost and technical activity that is also not conducive to using LPTA.

From our perspective as an observer of the process, it’s clear that there were increasingly non-applicable uses of LPTA, which led to some very anomalous decisions. The net result was that subject matter experts with education, talent, and experience became too expensive to use – they were being priced out of the market.

If there was someone willing to allegedly supply these SMEs for substantially less, that person automatically won an LPTA contract. But then when they tried to hire SMEs at these discounted rates the SMEs just went elsewhere to people who would pay them fairly.

This produced ugly contracts, when half the staff would leave either in the transition time frame or shortly thereafter, and who you lost were the really good people. Fortunately this set of legislation has reigned in the excesses between the two NDAAs. Fundamentally, we must thoroughly understand not just when to use LPTA but why it makes sense (or doesn’t).


Paycheck Protection Program Reform Bill Passed

© designer491 – depositphotos.com

This post was created with assistance from Washington Premier Group.

  1. Both chambers of Congress have passed the Paycheck Protection Program Flexibility Act of 2020 and the bill went to President Trump’s desk for his signature.
  2. The measure extends the Paycheck Protection Program loan forgiveness period from eight weeks to 24.
  3. The bill lowers the threshold created by the Small Business Administration guidance from 75 percent to 60 percent of the covered loan amount that must be used for payroll costs to receive loan forgiveness.
  4. The measure allows the loan repayment period to be extended from two to five years.
  5. Finally, the Act extends the Paycheck Protection Program’s safe harbor loan forgiveness deadline for rehiring workers from June 30, 2020 to December 31, 2020.

The Senate on Wednesday passed H.R. 7010, the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) Flexibility Act of 2020. The bill, which passed the House last week on a 417-1 vote, was signed by President Trump on June 5, 2020.

While the measure will provide greater flexibility to small businesses that have received forgivable loans under the PPP, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) has stated that additional work will be needed on the program, indicating that Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship Chairman Marco Rubio (R-FL) and Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME) will continue working on technical fixes to the PPP in the coming weeks. Chairman Rubio has expressed particular concerns about House Democrats’ decision to recess for the entire month, noting that the chamber’s recess could make a legislative fix to address additional technical errors more difficult.

Below, please find an overview of key provisions in the PPP Flexibility Act:

Extension of Loan Forgiveness Period:

  1. At present, PPP loan funds must be spent within eight weeks of a borrower receiving the loan.
  2. The PPP Flexibility Act extends this PPP loan forgiveness period from eight weeks to 24.
  3. However, the language allows PPP recipients receiving a loan before the enactment of the bill to elect the eight-week period.

Extension of Loan Repayment Period:

  1. Currently, the PPP offers two-year loan terms at a 1 percent fixed rate.
  2. The PPP Flexibility Act would allow the loan repayment period to be extended from two to five years. This provision will only impact borrowers whose PPP loans are disbursed after the bill’s enactment.
  3. Regarding existing PPP loans, the Act does not prohibit lenders and borrowers from mutually agreeing to modify the maturity terms of a covered loan.

Payroll Expenditure Requirement:

  1. Pursuant to a Small Business Administration (SBA) Interim Final Rule (IFR) issued on April 15, 2020 (85 Fed. Reg. 20811), the general allowable uses of loan proceeds restrict non-payroll expenses such as rent or mortgage payments to 25 percent of the overall PPP loan.
  2. The PPP Flexibility Act attempts to modify this requirement to provide greater flexibility at a new ratio of 40 percent on non-payroll expenses and 60 percent on payroll costs. However, the PPP Flexibility Act only modified the forgiveness provisions of the original CARES Act, not the general allowable uses of loan proceeds in the SBA IFR.
  3. The drafting of this provision may prove to be problematic for businesses seeking relief under the PPP.

The CARES Act created the PPP in two separate sections. Section 1102 delineates the parameters of the PPP loan program, including the allowable uses of loan proceeds, which include payroll, rent, utilities and interest on certain debt. Section 1106 established the parameters for loan forgiveness. Neither section requires that a certain percentage of loan proceeds be used for payroll.

The April 15, 2020 SBA IFR states that “at least 75 percent of the PPP loan proceeds shall be used for payroll costs.” Under the IFR, if a small business receives a $100,000 loan, but is only able to spend $60,000 on payroll, the small business appears to be required to return $20,000 to the lender because they cannot use the entire $100,000 for other allowable uses. The current IFR would not allow the small business to use more than $20,000 on other allowable loan uses, resulting in a loan of only $80,000.

The PPP Flexibility Act would amend Section 1106 of the CARES Act relating to loan forgiveness to provide that in order to receive loan forgiveness, 60 percent of the loan proceeds must be spent on payroll. The measure does not amend Section 1102 of the Act relating to the allowable uses of loan proceeds and thus does not alter the SBA’s regulatory requirement that 75 percent of the loan proceeds must be used for payroll.

If the Act remains in its current form and the IFR is not modified, PPP loan recipients will still be required to return loan proceeds to their lenders if they cannot use 75 percent of the proceeds on payroll. While the PPP Flexibility Act would ensure that a small business receiving a $100,000 loan would be able to receive forgiveness for a total of $80,000, it would not alleviate the need for the small business to return $20,000 of the original $100,000 loan if it can only use $60,000 for payroll to meet the IFR requirements for allowable uses.

Added Flexibility for Rehiring Workers:

Current guidance indicates that a PPP borrower’s loan forgiveness amount will be reduced if the average number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) during the related eight-week period is less than the average number of FTEs during the reference period chosen by the PPP borrower.

The PPP Flexibility Act stipulates that the forgiveness amount will not be reduced due to a reduced FTE count if the borrower can prove that they unsuccessfully attempted to rehire employees and hire “similarly qualified employees” prior to December 31, 2020. The measure also provides that forgiveness will not be reduced due to a reduced FTE count if the borrower can demonstrate that they were unable to return to the “same level of business activity” as prior to February 15, 2020 due to safety requirements.

The PPP currently includes a safe harbor for restoring average FTE and salaries/wages prior to June 30, 2020.

The PPP Flexibility Act extends this safe harbor deadline to December 31, 2020.

Extension of Loan Deferral Period:

At present, the PPP allows for a deferral of payments for a period of six months.

The PPP Flexibility Act would extend the PPP loan deferral period to the date on which the amount of loan forgiveness is remitted to the lender. If a borrower does not apply for forgiveness within ten months, they must begin to make payments.

Expanded Eligibility for Payroll Tax Deferral:

The CARES Act prohibited borrowers from taking advantage of the payroll tax deferral after a PPP loan was partially or completely forgiven.

The PPP Flexibility Act would remove this ban and allow all borrowers to be eligible for the CARES Act’s payroll tax deferral.

Timelines: The legislation pushes the PPP program’s expiration from Jun. 30. to Dec. 31.

What’s on the Horizon for the PPP?

Prior to Senate passage of H.R. 7010, Sens. Ron Johnson (R-WI) and Mike Lee (R-UT) — who had expressed concerns and opposition to the House-passed bill — secured a letter from key Small Business Committee members in both chambers clarifying that the intent of the legislation is not to reauthorize the program through the end of the year without additional reforms.

Small Business Committee Chairman Marco Rubio (R-FL) and Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME) have also indicated they are working on a technical change to the legislation that would ensure business can have their loans forgiven in some form regardless of whether they reach the 60 percent threshold. Additionally, there has been a bipartisan push in Congress to expand PPP eligibility to 501(c)6 organizations and other currently ineligible nonprofits in the next round of COVID-19 relief legislation.


DOD Issues New CARES Act, Section 3610 Guidance

This is a guest post by Cy Alba of PilieroMazza PLLC.

© djv – depositphotos.com

Guidance from the Department of Defense (DOD) has finally been issued related to Section 3610 of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, which allowed for payments to federal contractors to keep non-working employees at the ready to return to work when required to do so. The new guidance can be found here.

As we noted in a previous blog, the CARES Act allows contracting officers to pay contractors at the “minimum applicable billing rates” for any employees who cannot perform work at a government site or government-approved contractor site due to a shutdown of said site because of COVID-19. That is a statutory allowance and, as such, cannot be changed by any agency action. However, there has been confusion about specific terms in the statute and conflicting guidance coming out of various agencies. While this new guidance does not clear up the inconsistencies, it does help clarify how DOD is going to treat contractor requests for 3610 funding.

First, the new guidance clearly states:

  • the authority provided by Section 3610 is a permissive authority and the contracting officer is not required to reimburse any or all of the requested paid leave costs;
  • any reimbursement under Section 3610 is subject to the availability of funds;
  • the contracting officer has sole discretion to make decisions on a contractor’s affected status and the amount of any Section 3610 reimbursement;
  • contractors must not be reimbursed (or otherwise paid) twice for the same costs;
  • the contracting officer has the right to determine the amount reimbursed under Section 3610 and at what level (e.g., contract, division, segment, company, or corporate) the costs will be reimbursed;
  • contractors must segregate COVID-19 paid leave costs in their books and records;
  • contractors may not request, and shall not receive, Section 3610 reimbursement for any hours related to employees a contractor has furloughed or laid off—such hours must be excluded from any request for Section 3610 reimbursement;
  • paid leave reimbursement under Section 3610 excludes any profit or fees; and
  • contracting officers shall document any COVID-19 paid leave reimbursement decisions in a memorandum for record (MFR)—a template that contracting officers may use to complete the MFR will be provided separately, but this template should be tailored to the specific circumstances and is not a substitute for a contracting officer’s independent thought or reasoned judgment.

While some of this is not consistent with a plain reading of the CARES Act itself (specifically, there is no indication that fee or profit is excluded—quite the opposite, as the Act says “minimum applicable billing rates,” not costs), this is the guidance that DOD has chosen to adopt. And because, as noted above, the granting of 3610 funding is entirely discretionary, the cognizant contracting officer can simply give contractors a “take-it-or-leave-it” offer. It is highly unlikely that a contractor could actually sue to seek any additional 3610 funding, or any funding at all under Section 3610, as it not mandatory.

It is also critical to note that this guidance states that you cannot “double dip” by using both 3610 funding and forgiven Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans for the same expenses. This is not a shock to those who have been following the guidance and pendulum of thinking on this, but this new guidance does make it much more explicit. It also now requires contractors to take the affirmative step of notifying any contracting officer who has received, or is reviewing, a request for 3610 funding. This is to ensure that contracting officers do not pay 3610 funds to contractors who have received, or will receive, PPP loan forgiveness. Additionally, it is also meant to notify contracting officers of other situations where the contractor has received any other tax credit or other funding which could cover the same costs being requested, or which may have already been paid with 3610 funding. This is to allow the contracting officer to deny 3610 funds, or to demand reimbursement of already-paid 3610 funding.

While this may seem like a change, it should also be noted that most accountants who are well versed in government contract issues have already been instructing clients that any amounts of PPP loan forgiveness or other tax credits would likely be owed back to the government for cost-reimbursable contracts, at the very least, and possibly all contracts in some cases. So this new guidance simply solidifies the reality that a government contractor cannot “double dip” by seeking funding from two different government programs for the same costs.

The guidance includes a number of instructions for how contractors and the government should work together to construct 3610 funding requests and how to determine the appropriate amounts to be paid. Comments from industry are due to osd.dfars@mail.mil before 5:00 PM ET on Friday, May 22, 2020. Please review the guidance here and send your comments to marketing@pilieromazza.com by 5:00 PM ET on May 21, 2020, so we can then gather comments into one document.

PilieroMazza is working to prepare a fulsome write-up on this new guidance and, on May 20, 2020, Cy Alba presented a new webinar on the PPP loans and 3610 funding crossover. You can access the webinar and slides on demand here.

PilieroMazza is monitoring the rapidly changing COVID-19 crisis and will provide updates when more guidance is released by the government. We also invite you to visit the Firm’s COVID-19 Client Resource Center to access further resources that will help businesses navigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. If you need immediate assistance, please contact us at covid19@pilieromazza.com.

This post was originally released as a PilieroMazza Client Alert at https://www.pilieromazza.com/dod-issues-new-cares-act-section-3610-guidance and was reprinted with permission.


How SBA’s Final Rule Will Impact WOSB and 8(a) Businesses

This is a guest post by Meghan Leemon of PilieroMazza PLLC.

© filmfoto – depositphotos.com

Just under one year ago, we wrote about the Small Business Administration’s (SBA) proposed rule regarding implementing a certification requirement for Women-Owned Small Businesses (WOSBs) / Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Businesses (EDWOSBs) and revised economic disadvantage criteria for 8(a) eligibility. SBA’s final rule was recently published, implementing just that. The rule will impact businesses seeking to compete for government contracts under the WOSB and 8(a) Business Development programs.

WOSB / EDWOSB Certification

Effective October 15, 2020, WOSB / EDWOSBs will be required to be certified as such in order to pursue WOSB / EDWOSB set-asides, as well as those seeking to be awarded a multiple-award contract with pools reserved for WOSB / EDWOSBs. Notably, the new regulation provides that, in order to submit an offer on a specific WOSB / EDWOSB set-aside requirement, the company must either be certified as a WOSB / EDOWSB or “represent that it has submitted a complete application for WOSB or EDWOSB certification to SBA or a third-party certifier and has not received a negative determination regarding that application . . . .”

The rule explains that a company may apply to SBA for WOSB / EDWOSB certification, and that it may submit evidence that it is either a women-owned and controlled small business certified by the Department of Veterans Affairs’ Center for Verification and Evaluation as a Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business or Veteran-Owned Small Business or certified as a WOSB / EDWOSB by an approved third-party certifier. Additionally, a certified 8(a) participant qualifies as an EDWOSB. The final rule states that SBA will make a determination within 90 days after receipt of a complete package, whenever practical. If SBA or a third-party certifier declines certification, that concern must wait 90 days to reapply, and there is no appeal process.

While self-certification will no longer be accepted as of October 15, 2020, the other regulations regarding the certification process are set to be effective on July 15, 2020. It appears that SBA may be providing for a three-month window to allow companies to seek certification prior to October 15, 2020, but it is currently unknown as to exactly when SBA will begin accepting WOSB / EDWOSB applications.

8(a) Economic Disadvantage Eligibility Criteria

As it applies to the 8(a) program regulations, the final rule is effective July 15, 2020. Through the final rule, SBA has revised the 8(a) initial economic disadvantage criteria to be consistent with the EDWOSB requirements. Accordingly, there will no longer be a distinction between initial entry into and continued eligibility for the 8(a) program. The three economic disadvantage criteria will be as follows: $750,000 net worth, $350,000 adjusted gross income, and $6 million total assets.

Notably, SBA has also revised the regulation to provide that funds invested in an individual retirement account or other official retirement account “will not be considered in determining an individual’s net worth.” Presently, the regulation does not speak to an individual’s age, but SBA has interpreted the regulation to state that if an individual has reached retirement age, then it will include the value of such account in calculating an individual’s net worth. The revised regulation clarifying that the value of a legitimate retirement account, regardless of the account holder’s age, is not included will be a welcome change. The same exclusion should also apply for purposes of the total assets test.

Should you have any questions as you prepare for WOSB / EDWOSB certification and / or regarding your eligibility for the 8(a) program, please contact Meghan Leemon, the author of this alert, or a member of PilieroMazza’s Government Contracts Group.

Meghan Leemon is a member of the Government Contracts, Small Business Programs & Advisory Services, and Government Contracts Claims and Appeals practice groups.

This article was originally published as a PilieroMazza Client Alert at https://www.pilieromazza.com/sba-implements-wosb-edwosb-certification-requirement-and-revises-economic-disadvantage-criteria-for-8a-eligibility-including-treatment-of-retirement-accounts and was reprinted with permission.


New FAR Rule: Partial Set-Asides and Reserves, Small Business Set-Asides Under Multiple-Award Contracts

© filmfoto – depositphotos.com

DoD, GSA, and NASA have issued a final rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement regulatory changes made by the Small Business Administration, which provide Governmentwide policy for partial set-asides and reserves, and for set-asides of orders for small business concerns under multiple-award contracts. The rule went into effect March 30, 2020.

As part of the implementation of reserves of multiple-award contracts, the proposed rule removed the term “reserve” in the FAR where it is not related to reserves of multiple-award contracts.

This final rule makes the following significant changes from the proposed rule:

  • Removal of the term “HUBZone order.” This term has been removed throughout the final rule.
  • Requirement to assign a North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. The final rule clarifies that NAICS code(s) must be assigned to all solicitations, contracts, and task and delivery orders, and that the NAICS code assigned to a task or delivery order must be a NAICS code assigned to the multiple-award contract. This clarification appears at FAR 19.102, with cross references in 8.404, 8.405-5, and 16.505.
  • Requirement to assign more than one NAICS code and associated size standard for multiple-award contracts where a single NAICS code does not describe the principal purpose of both the contract and all orders to be issued under the contract. In the proposed rule, the date for implementation of this particular requirement was listed as January 31, 2017. For the final rule, this date has been extended to October 1, 2022. This is when Governmentwide systems are expected to accommodate the requirement. This date also allows time for Federal agencies to budget and plan for internal system updates across their multiple contracting systems to accommodate the requirement. Use of this date in the final rule means that the assignment of more than one NAICS code for multiple-award contracts is authorized only for solicitations issued after October 1, 2022. Before this date, agencies may continue awarding multiple-award contracts using any existing authorities, including any addressed in this rule, but shall continue to report one NAICS code and size standard which best describes the principal purpose of the supplies or services being acquired.
  • Rerepresentation of size status for multiple-award contracts with more than one NAICS code. FAR 19.301-2 is revised to clarify that, for multiple-award contracts with more than one NAICS code assigned, a contractor must rerepresent its size status for each of those NAICS codes. A new Alternate I is added for the clause at 52.219-28 to allow rerepresentations for multiple NAICS codes, and a prescription is added at 19.309(c). Alternate I will be included in solicitations that will result in multiple-award contracts with more than one NAICS code.
  • Rerepresentation for orders under multiple-award contracts. The clause at 52.219-28 is revised to relocate the paragraph addressing rerepresentation for orders closer to the beginning of the clause and to renumber subsequent paragraphs.
  • Representation of size and socioeconomic status. FAR 19.301-1 is revised to clarify that, for orders under basic ordering agreements and FAR part 13 blanket purchase agreements (BPAs), offerors must be a small business concern identified at 19.000(a)(3) at the time of award of the order, and that a HUBZone small business concern is not required to represent twice for an award under the HUBZone Program. A HUBZone small business concern is required to represent at the time of its initial offer and be a HUBZone small business concern at time of contract award.
  • Applicability of the limitations on subcontracting to orders issued directly to one small business under a reserve. The final rule clarifies that the limitations on subcontracting and the nonmanufacturer rule apply to orders issued directly to one small business concern under a multiple-award contract with reserves. This clarification appears in multiple locations in parts 19 and 52. The final rule also clarifies the limitations on subcontracting compliance period for orders issued directly, under multiple-award contracts with reserves, to small businesses who qualify for any of the socioeconomic programs. These clarifications appear in subparts 19.8, 19.13, 19.14, and 19.15, and in the clauses at 52.219-3, 52.219-14, 52.219-27, 52.219-29, and 52.219-30.
  • Compliance period for the limitations on subcontracting. The final rule revises the proposed text at sections 19.505, 19.809, 19.1308, 19.1407, and 19.1507 to be consistent with the implementing clauses for those sections. The clauses reflect that the contracting officer has discretion on whether the compliance period for a set-aside contract is at the contract level or at the individual order level.
  • Fair opportunity and orders issued directly to one small business under a reserve. The final rule addresses orders issued directly to one small business under a reserve at FAR 16.505.
  • Conditions under which an order may be issued directly to an 8(a) contractor under a reserve. The final rule clarifies in 19.804-6 the conditions under which an order can be issued directly to an 8(a) contractor on a multiple-award contract with a reserve.
  • Set-asides of orders under multiple-award contracts. At FAR 19.507, the prescription for Alternate I of the clause at 52.219-13 is revised to apply to any multiple-award contract under which orders will be set aside, regardless of whether the multiple-award contract contains a reserve.
  • Consistent language for “rule of two” text. FAR 19.502-3, 19.502-4, and 19.503 are revised for consistency with FAR 19.502-2(a), which most closely matches the “rule of two” in the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 644(j)(1)).
  • Documentation of compliance with limitations on subcontracting. The requirement for contracting officers to document contractor compliance with the limitations on subcontracting is removed from subparts 19.5, 19.8, 19.13, 19.14, and 19.15. FAR part 4 and subpart 42.15 already prescribe documentation of contractor compliance with various contract terms and conditions, including the limitations on subcontracting. FAR subpart 42.15 is revised to clarify that performance assessments shall include, as applicable, a contractor’s failure to comply with the limitations on subcontracting.
  • Clarification of “domestically produced or manufactured product.” FAR 19.6 is revised to use the phrase “end item produced or manufactured in the United States or its outlying areas” instead of “domestically produced or manufactured product.”
  • Subcontracting plans for multiple-award contracts with more than one NAICS code. FAR subpart 19.7 is revised to provide guidance to contracting officers on how to apply the requirement for small business subcontracting plans to multiple-award contracts assigned multiple NAICS codes. With the requirement to assign multiple NAICS codes, it will be possible for a contractor to be both a small business concern and an other than small business concern for a single contract.
  • HUBZone price evaluation preference and reserves. FAR subpart 19.13 is revised to clarify that the HUBZone price evaluation preference shall not be used for the reserved portion of a solicitation for a multiple-award contract. The price evaluation preference shall be used in the portion of a solicitation for a multiple-award contract that is not reserved. In addition, the clause at 52.219-4 is revised to remove the proposed text that stated the HUBZone price evaluation preference did not apply to solicitations that have a reserve for HUBZone small business concerns, since that is not accurate.
  • Performance by a HUBZone small business concern. FAR 19.1308 is revised to specify performance by a HUBZone small business concern instead of performance in a HUBZone. The related changes that were proposed in the clause at 52.219-4, paragraph (d)(2), are not being adopted as they are no longer accurate.
  • Separate provision for reserves and clause for orders issued directly under a reserve. The final rule provides a new solicitation provision at 52.219-31, Notice of Small Business Reserve, and prescription at 19.507 to address information and requirements that are related to reserves of multiple-award contracts and are appropriate for inclusion only in the solicitation. These requirements and information were proposed as part of the clause at 52.219-XX (now 52.219-32); however, since they only apply prior to contract award, the final rule relocates them to a separate provision. The final rule also revises the clause at 52.219-32 to address only orders issued directly to one small business under a reserve. The title of the clause reflects the revised content.

Click here for a link to the FAR rule, or read more at GSA Interact.


Cybersecurity in Government Contracting – 2020 and Beyond

© kentoh – depositphotos.com

Government contractors often outsource proposal writing and proposal management services, which means the company you use for your proposal support is part of your supply chain and must meet established security standards.

The folks at ProposalHelper have documented and ingrained security processes and practices in every aspect of their operations, and their information security processes have been independently audited and verified to meet ISO 27001:2013 standards.

The following is a guest post by Dr. Troy A. Tyre, Vice President U.S. Operations/Delivery Solutions, ProposalHelper, LLC.

Businesses focused on government contracts for significant amounts of the company’s revenue face unique challenges as we move into 2020 and beyond. The cybersecurity industry faces unparalleled changes, more so than other industries. The status quo will no longer meet the requirements. Key changes include:

  • Business requirements: Federal agencies are now evaluating cybersecurity preparedness and maturity of programs in awarding new contracts. Cybersecurity preparedness is now a competitive advantage.
  • Regulatory complexity: New regulations, imposed by federal and state agencies, are either already in effect or going into effect in 2020. Some of these regulations are clear while others require interpretation, making compliance difficult.
  • Liability increasing: Several new elements of liability impact Government contractors. Government contractors are now held accountable for cybersecurity deficiencies in products/services under the False Claims Act. The Government contractor may also be liable under new and existing state laws, which are more frequently being enforced.
  • Evolving threats: Cybersecurity threats are increasingly working their way down the supply chain. Vendors are often seen as the “weakest link” and the easiest way to infiltrate the government.

Understanding the changing landscape is a real requirement and can provide first adopter differentiation, at least initially. In 2019, the Department of Defense (DoD) identified cybersecurity weaknesses in supply chains as a critical threat to the economy and national intelligence. DoD’s response was the development of the Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC), which sets standards for cybersecurity preparedness and documents the process for all DoD contractors.

Large and small, primes and subs, all contractors are required to be third-party certified for cybersecurity preparedness in order to bid on new contracts and re-competes with the DoD. The DoD has deemed cybersecurity to be a foundational element in their procurement process. In other words; if a contractor does not meet the required level of preparedness, they cannot bid on any DoD contracts or re-competes. The DoD is the first agency to mandate third-party audits for their entire supply chain and to remove the ability to self-certify.

The military sees the importance of cybersecurity as well. In March 2018, the Marine Corps took the next step in growing cyber forces with the creation of the new officer military occupational specialty (MOS) focused on cyber operations. Senior leadership intends for the new cyber officers to lead within both the Marine Corps Cyberspace Command and across the wider Fleet Marine Forces. 

The new officers will integrate the capabilities and effects of offensive and defensive cyberspace operations at the tactical level, supporting troops on the ground; the operational level, supporting commanders at every echelon; and the strategic level, supporting policymakers across the DoD. On November 21, 2019, the Naval Academy Class of 2020 received their first cyber warfare community selections, including six highly qualified candidates who were designated as Marine Corps cyber warfare officers.

Cybersecurity is one of the most eminent requirements for companies, regardless of whether you provide services, construction, commodities or products.

Dr. Troy Tyre, Vice President of Delivery Solutions at ProposalHelper, brings over 35 years of industry experience in project and proposal management. He can be reached at troy@proposalhelper.com or 571-449-6071.


The CARES Act and Leave Guide For Employers: Deciding Which Option is Best For You and Your Employees

© klublub – depositphotos.com

This is a guest post by Nichole Atallah, Sarah Nash, and Sara Nasseri of PilieroMazza PLLC.

Congress passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “Act” or the “CARES Act”) on March 27, 2020 in an effort to mitigate the economic impact of COVID-19 on businesses and employees. President Trump is expected to sign the bill into law any moment (note: this post was originally published on March 27, 2020).

Once signed, the CARES Act allows businesses to apply for loans to continue paying employees and maintaining operations, which may be forgiven, expands on provisions of the Families First Coronavirus Act (FFCRA), and provides for additional flexibilities regarding unemployment insurance, among other aid and relief for employers. The CARES Act is an unprecedented piece of legislation, but many employers are struggling to determine how to make the right choice to save their business and maintain their workforce. In this blog, we are breaking down options for employers who have affected workforces and identifying resources available to them.

I.  Can I Continue Paying Salaries and Operating Expenses?

Many businesses have been hit hard by the COVID-19 crisis and have had to stop work entirely. The programs available in CARES can facilitate payment of wages and operating expenses during this time.

Paycheck Protection Program:

Good for businesses with fewer than 500 employees that would otherwise have to layoff or furlough their employees.

The Paycheck Protection Program expands upon the U.S. Small Business Administration’s (SBA) 7(a) Loan Program. The program would allow small businesses of no more than 500 employees, as well as businesses otherwise considered small under their NAICS code, to cover payroll costs and other expenses from February 15, 2020 through June 30, 2020. Eligible businesses will include nonprofit organizations, veteran organizations, Tribal businesses, sole-proprietors, independent contractors, and certain self-employed individuals. Additionally, businesses in the hospitality industry (those with a NAICS Code of 72) are eligible for a loan as long as they employ not more than 500 employees per each physical location. The Act also waives many requirements previously required to qualify for a loan, such as a personal guarantee or collateral.

The eligible loan amount will be determined based on the lesser of the following:

  • 2.5 times the average monthly payroll costs of the employer during the prior year; or
  • $10 million.

Loan recipients may use the loan to fund the following:

  • Payroll costs up to $33,000 per employee ($100,000 annually);
  • Costs related to group health care benefits during periods of sick leave, medical or family leave, and insurance premiums;
  • Employee salaries, commissions, or similar compensations;
  • Payments of interest on any mortgage obligation;
  • Rent;
  • Utilities; and
  • Interest on any other debt obligations that were incurred prior to February 15, 2020.

An eligible business will have to certify to a number requirements, including that the uncertainty of economic conditions makes the loan necessary to maintain ongoing operations.

The program provides for loan forgiveness for any amount equal to the sum of all the costs incurred and payments made during the covered period, including payroll costs, interest on any mortgage obligations, payments on rent obligation, or any covered utility payment. Please note that the amount of the forgiveness for the loans will be reduced if the employer reduces its workforce during the covered period or reduces the salary or wages paid to an employee by more than 25% during the covered period (as compared to the most recent quarter). However, an employer may avoid the loan reduction where, by June 30, 2020, the employer rehires any and all employees laid off since February 15, 2020 or increases previously reduced wages.

For a more detailed analysis of the Act’s Paycheck Protection Program and the 7(a) loan program, please visit this link for PilieroMazza’s Client Alert on the CARES Act.

Emergency Relief and Taxpayer Relief:

Good for Mid-Size Businesses over 500 Employees that would otherwise have to layoff or furlough employees.

If employers do not meet the eligibility requirements for the small business loans as described above, they may qualify for the loan programs for mid-size businesses. Those businesses with 500 to 10,000 employees could receive direct loans under the Emergency Relief and Taxpayer protections of the Act. While the details of this program are not yet clear, if a business believes they may qualify for this type of loan, they must provide a “good faith certification” that, among other things, the funds it receives will be used to retain at least 90 % of its workforce until September 30, 2020 and it will not outsource or offshore jobs for 2 years after completing repayment of the loan.

Relief for Government Contractors:

Good for federal government contractors under a stop work order or facility closure or restriction.

The Act provides a mechanism for contracting officers to modify the terms and conditions of a contract and reimburse contractors at the minimum applicable contract billing rates to keep their employees or subcontractors in a ready state, not to exceed an average of 40 hours per week. This authority extends until September 30, 2020 and only applies to a contractor whose employees or subcontractors cannot perform work on a site due to facility closures or restrictions, and whose employees cannot telework because their job duties cannot be performed remotely.

The Act is in line with the recent March 9, 2020 memorandum from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which provides agencies with additional flexibilities on administrative relief to an expanded scope of recipients affected by the loss of operational capacity and increased costs due to the COVID-19 crisis. For government contractors, best practice now would be to communicate with your contracting officers and provide them with the tools and knowledge of the flexibility provided to them under the Act and related guidance.

The Downside

While the relief in the Act provides a funding source for businesses that qualify, there will be a period of time from application to funding that may be difficult for some employers to sustain. Employers may have to explore interim options before funding becomes available.

II.  Can I Provide Sick or Family Leave to Employees?

Effective April 1, the FFCRA provides for new paid leave requirements as part of new Emergency Paid Sick Leave and Emergency Paid Family and Medical Leave requirements. The CARES Act makes several changes to the FFCRA, most of which are technical in nature. We previously wrote on the FFCRA signed into law by President Trump on March 18, 2020 (link).

FFCRA continues to be a good option for employers who are not shut down or facing significant layoffs, but who have employees who cannot telework (or need to telework on an intermittent basis) and are ill with COVID-19 related symptoms, are told by a physician to isolate, need to take care of a child or relative, or are subject to a federal, state, or local isolation order. If an employer takes advantage of FFCRA sick leave, any tax credit received by the employer cannot be used as a basis for loan forgiveness under the Payment Protection Program described above.

The Act adds a new provision for rehired employees under the FFCRA’s Emergency Family and Medical Leave. Specifically, the Act now provides that employees who were laid off by an employer after March 1, 2020, had worked for the employer at least 30 of the last 60 days before the layoff, and have now been rehired, can be eligible for Emergency Family and Medical Leave.

Additionally, the Act allows for refundable tax credits under the FFCRA to be advanced. The IRS is expected to release guidance on this issue and other tax implications under the FFCRA in the coming weeks.

Key Takeaways

If you do not qualify for a loan and you have been able to maintain business operations, the FFCRA provides you with a means to seek assistance and relief for employees because of one of the eligible reasons prescribed by the FFCRA.

Keep in mind that the FFCRA does not kick in until April 1 and the relief is limited in scope and duration. Also, it is important to note that FFCRA’s paid sick leave and expanded family medical leave is in addition to employees’ preexisting leave entitlements. Under the FFCRA, the employee may choose to use existing paid vacation, personal, medical, or sick leave from the company’s paid leave policy to supplement the amount your employee receives from paid sick leave or expanded family and medical leave, up to the employee’s normal earnings. However, you are not required to permit an employee to use existing paid leave to supplement any portion of the FFCRA leave that is unpaid and you cannot claim and will not receive tax credits for such supplemental amounts.

III.  Do I Layoff or Furlough Employees?

In spite of all of the relief that may be available through the CARES Act and the FFCRA, some employers have had and will have to make the decision to layoff or furlough employees, even if for a short period of time. Whether to layoff or furlough employees can depend largely on state unemployment compensation regulations and whether your benefit plans will require an employer to continue benefit payments during a period of leave without pay, such as a furlough. It is advisable to check with your benefits providers regarding the expectation of your benefit plans.

The CARES Act also expands unemployment assistance for covered individuals through December 31, 2020. It will apply to individuals who are unemployed, partially unemployed, or unable to work between January 27, 2020 and December 31, 2020. Additionally, a covered individual will receive an additional $600 per week on top of the amount determined under the state law. The Act allows for expanded assistance to continue for a maximum of 39 weeks, which is greater than the 26 weeks typically provided by most states.

Each employer is facing tough challenges unique to its business operations and circumstances. PilieroMazza will continue to monitor the rapidly developing COVID-19 crisis and will provide updates accordingly, especially as more guidance gets released by government agencies. In the meantime, the Labor & Employment Group at PilieroMazza is here to help with any of the above as need be. We also invite you to visit PilieroMazza’s Client Resource Center to access further resources that will help businesses navigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

This PilieroMazza Client Alert originally appeared at https://www.pilieromazza.com/the-cares-act-and-leave-guide-for-employers-deciding-which-option-is-best-for-you-and-your-employees and was reprinted with permission.


Contracting Officers Can Pay You Even If The Contract Is Shut Down!

© ffikretow – depositphotos.com

This is a guest post by Cy Alba of PilieroMazza PLLC.

Yesterday, we discussed the emergency loan programs and loan forgiveness opportunities for small businesses in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”). However, it is critical to understand that there other avenues for relief that do not have to wait for SBA or private lenders to start processing such loans. Specifically, OMB Memorandum M-20-18 gave Contracting Officers (“CO”) broad authority and specifically states that all contracting personnel should “feel fully empowered to use acquisition flexibilities.” Further, Section 3610 of the Act, entitled “Federal Contractor Authority,” specifically states that COs have authority to continue paying contractors in order to maintain employment for contractor personnel, even if the contract is subject to a stop work order or other delay. Again, this is true even if no work is being performed on the contract.

More specifically, the CARES Act states that:

…funds made available to an agency by this Act or any other Act may be used by such agency to modify the terms and conditions of a contract, or other agreement, without consideration, to reimburse at the minimum applicable contract billing rates not to exceed an average of 40 hours per week any paid leave, including sick leave, a contractor provides to keep its employees or subcontractors in a ready state, including to protect the life and safety of Government and contractor personnel, but in no event beyond 9/30/2020. Such authority shall apply only to a contractor whose employees or subcontractors cannot perform work on a site that has been approved by the Federal Government due to facility closures or restrictions, and who cannot telework because their job duties cannot be performed remotely during the public health emergency for COVID-19.

While the wording of this provision is not entirely clear for every contractual circumstance, this allowance by Congress, combined with the clear guidance from OMB that all COs should feel “fully empowered” to exercise all contracting flexibilities, gives every contractor a strong argument to support continued payment on contracts which have been suspended in some way due to the COVID-19 crisis. Even if you are working on a Firm-Fixed Price (“FFP”) contract, or a contract where payments are made via deliverables or some similar method, the Act gives COs authority to modify the contract to transform any standard payment or negotiated amounts to per hour contract billing rates for all of your employees. In fact, the Act, along with the OMB guidance, gives COs near unfettered discretion to craft a fair and reasonable alternative on a contract-by-contract basis to ensure employees are working and a company’s bills are being paid throughout this crisis and without reliance upon the SBA 7(a) loans or other emergency disaster loans.

It should also be noted that the Act uses the phrase “minimum applicable contract billing rates” when describing the amount to be reimbursed to contractors. It does not state that only direct costs paid to the employee are to be reimbursed. Therefore, there is a good argument that the amounts to be reimbursed under the Act are the actual contract rates, if such rates are already in the contract, including all indirect costs and even profit. As noted above, the Act and the OMB memorandum gives COs the ability to add negotiated rates to a FFP or other deliverable-based contract that does not have hourly rates. These too should be “contract billing rates” and not merely the direct costs paid to the employee.

All this said, there is an open question about how owners—especially small business owners who rely on monthly or bi-monthly income streams to pay their bills and feed their families—are supposed to be paid if COs attempt to take a position that profits are disallowed. Again, I note that the law itself does not disallow profits, or limit reimbursements just to costs, so COs are more than capable of continuing to pay the fully loaded rates to contractors and, given the immense impact this is having on everyone (from the lowest level employee to the highest executive), it is only fair and reasonable that the phrase “minimum contract billing rates” includes the actual fully loaded rate negotiated for a contract or a fully loaded rate to be negotiated for contracts that are not Time and Materials or Labor Hour type contracts. Of course, as we know more or the details are fleshed out, we will continue to update our clients.

To that end, and in order to better assist businesses during this national emergency, PilieroMazza has created the PilieroMazza COVID-19 Client Resource Center to counsel clients on legal issues stemming from the evolving spread of COVID-19 in the United States (check this page regularly for updates). The Firm’s COVID-19 Client Response Team’s focus includes addressing questions involving all aspects of our practice, such as labor and employment concerns, workplace safety and contingency plans, business interruption, contract disputes, as well as finding the best path through this crisis for your business.

Cy Alba, the author of this Client Alert, is a Partner in the Firm’s Government Contracts and Small Business Programs & Advisory Services practice groups.

This PilieroMazza Client Alert originally appeared at https://www.pilieromazza.com/contracting-officers-can-pay-you-even-if-the-contract-is-shut-down and was reprinted with permission.


Breaking Down SBA’s COVID-19 Economic Injury Disaster Loan

A guest post by David T. Shafer, Associate, PilieroMazza PLLC.

© creisinger – depositphotos.com

The unprecedented impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on small businesses has caused the Small Business Administration (SBA) to institute an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) program aimed at aiding those affected by the pandemic. Whether you’re a government contractor or a commercial business, we’re breaking down for you the who, what, where, when, and how of the SBA’s detailed EIDL application process.

1. WHO: Eligible Businesses

a. To be eligible, in addition to other conditions, an applicant must be a small business, small agricultural cooperative, or a private non-profit organization.

b. The business’s principal office must be located in a state that has an EIDL declaration (see list below).

c. The SBA must determine the business to be creditworthy. Loans that exceed $25,000 must be secured by collateral to the extent possible and, if the business has no collateral to pledge, assets of the business’s owners may need to be pledged as collateral.

d. Applicants must show that they have the ability to repay all loans.

e. EIDL assistance is available only to a small business when SBA determines that such business is unable to obtain credit elsewhere. If you have not explored obtaining financing through other avenues (SBA or other), please contact a trusted advisor who can help align your objectives with an appropriate lender and/or investor.

2. WHAT: Economic Injury Disaster Loan

a. EIDLs are loans issued to eligible business by SBA under its own authority, following a request to the SBA from a state or territory’s governor that the businesses in their respective area have been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, as provided for in the recent Coronarvirus Preparedness and Response Supplement Appropriations Act.

b. An EIDL is a loan for a business to pay fixed debts, payroll, accounts payable and other liabilities. The actual amount of each loan is limited to the economic injury suffered by the business as determined by SBA, up to a maximum of $2 million, which maximum can be waived by SBA if the business is a major source of employment. “Economic injury” has been interpreted to mean that the business is unable to meet its obligations and to pay its ordinary and necessary operating expenses. Importantly, such loans do not replace lost sales or revenue, and such losses will not be considered an economic injury.

c. The maximum interest rate is 3.75% for small businesses.

d. The maximum term of each loan is 30 years, though the period of time to repay the loan is determined on a case-by-case basis depending on the business’s creditworthiness.

3. WHERE: Eligible States and Territories

Listed below are states that have received an EDIL declaration at the time of this alert. States in [bold/italics] have not yet received a declaration [as of March 20, 2020], though we anticipate that they will shortly. If your business’s principal office is in one of the states or a county or city that borders these states, you may be eligible for SBA assistance.

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

District of Columbia

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

4. WHEN: SBA has already started processing applications.

5. HOW: Starting the Application Process

For additional information, please visit SBA Disaster Loan Assistance, call the SBA Disaster Assistance Customer Service Center at 1-800-659-2955 (TTY: 1-800-877-8339), or email emaildisastercustomerservice@sba.gov. If you would like to contact PilieroMazza for assistance navigating the program, please contact Dave Shafer at dshafer@pilieromazza.com.

Important Takeaways

a. Businesses should review their current insurance policies, other assistance programs, and other banking relationships currently in place to determine whether obtaining an EIDL is an “event of default” or can otherwise adversely affect their financing agreements and arrangements that are currently in place.

b. The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented national crisis that will put a strain on governmental resources which, in turn, may cause delays in the processing of loan applications. Accordingly, SBA officials have repeatedly stressed that applicants should thoroughly complete their applications before submission to ensure they are able to be processed the first time they are submitted.

If you have questions about SBA’s Economic Injury Disaster Loan Program or any component of the application, please contact Dave Shafer at dshafer@pilieromazza.com or at 410.500.5551. We also invite you to visit the firm’s “COVID-19 Client Resource Center” to access resources that will help small businesses navigate the COVID-19 pandemic.

This post originally appeared on the PilieroMazza blog at https://www.pilieromazza.com/breaking-down-sbas-covid19-economic-injury-disaster-loan.


css.php